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Energy in Ghana

Composition of Fuels in Final Energy Consumption
Composition of Fuels in Final Energy Consumption, 2000

In the year 2000, it was estimated that electricity accounted for about 11 % of the total energy consumed. Ghana's electricity supply is mainly obtained from hydro and thermal sources. Ghana also relies on some level of imports from neighbouring La Cote d'Ivoire to supplement domestic supply especially during peak hours.

The electricity supply mix in the country is expected to change by the year 2010 from the largely hydro-based system to a largely thermal-based one relying on natural gas as the main source of fuel. This transition would be made possible by the West African Gas Pipeline Project, which is expected to transport natural gas from Nigeria through Benin and Togo to Ghana.

Installed electricity generation capacity and electricity generation in 2004
 
Installed capacity
in MW (1)
Electricity generation
in GWh (2)
Akosombo Hydroelectric Power Plant
1038
4404
Kpong Hydroelectric Power Plant
160
876
TAPCO Thermal Power Plant TAPCO = Takoradi Power Company
330
536
TICO Thermal Power Plant
TICO = Takoradi International Comp.
220
222
Total
1748
6038
Sources: 1: Guide to Electric Power in Ghana, 1st Edition, University of Ghana, Legon, 2005. 2: VRA 2005.

The current national access to electricity supply is about 43 % of the population. However, over 80 % of the domestic electricity supply is consumed in the cities and urban towns.

Hydropower and imported fossil fuel are the main energy sources used to generate electricity in the country. See figures Total Electricity Generation 1990-2004 and Percentage Shares of Hydro and Thermal Generation 2000-2004.

There is also the potential for electricity generation from renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass and small hydro. These sources however have not yet been exploited to any significant degree for electricity generation.

There are over 4,000 off-grid photovoltaic (PV) systems installed nationwide as at 2001 with a total capacity is about 1 MW.

Source: Energy Commission, Electricity Sector Overview, 2002

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Only energy saving technologies and the use of renewable energy sources can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prevent climate change. The renewable energy sources available in Ghana are the following:

Solar
Solar power from photovoltaics involves the conversion of solar energy to electricity in photovoltaic cells. Solar-thermal power exploits solar radiation for hot water production.
Wind
Wind power exploits the kinetic energy of wind in wind turbines to generate electrical power or in wind water pumps for irrigation purposes.
Small Hydro
Hydroelectric power plants convert the potential and kinetic energy of water into electricity.
Biomass
Solid or liquid biomass is defined as any plant matter or organic waste used directly as fuel or converted into other forms (e.g. biofuel, biogas) before combustion.
Energy Efficiency
Read our brochures how to reduce energy consumption and save money:
Fuel Wise (part I)
(pdf, 720 KB)
Fuel Wise (part II)
(pdf, 940 KB)
more publications

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